Quantum physics has the answer to making better holograms

Once, the hologram was just a scientific curiosity. But thanks to the rapid development of lasers, they have gradually moved into center stage, appearing on the security image for credit cards and Bank noteIn science fiction films – the most memorable Star Wars – and even when “live” on stage Long dead rapper Tupac reborn for fans at the 2012 Coachella Music Festival.

Holography Recording is the photographic process of light that is scattered by an object and presents it in a three-dimensional way. Was invented by Hungarian-British physicist Denis Gabor in the early 1950s search He later received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971.

In addition to banknotes, passports and controversial wrappers, holography has become an essential tool for other practical applications, including data storage, biological microscopy, medical imaging, and medical diagnosis. In a technique called holographic microscopy, scientists create holograms to understand biological mechanisms in tissues and living cells. For example, this technique is routinely analyzed for red blood cells to detect the presence of malaria parasites and to identify sperm cells for IVF procedures.

But now we have Discovered A new type of quantum holography to overcome the limitations of traditional holographic approaches. This groundbreaking discovery can lead to better medical imaging and speed up progress Quantum informatics. It is a scientific field that bases all technologies quantum physics, Including quantum computing and quantum communication.

How the hologram works

Classical holography creates two-dimensional renderings of three-dimensional objects in which the laser beam of light is split into two paths. The path of a beam, known as an object beam, illuminates the subject of holography, with light reflected by a camera or special holographic film. The path of the second beam, known as the reference beam, is bounced directly from the mirror on the collection surface without touching the subject.

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Holograms are made by measuring the difference in phase of light, where two beams meet. Phase is the amount that mixes the waves of the subject and object and interferes with each other. A bit like waves on the surface of a swimming pool, the interference creates a complex wave pattern in the incident space that includes both regions where the waves cancel each other (troughs), and others where they add up (crest).

Interference usually requires light to be “coherent” – the same frequency everywhere. The light emitted by a laser, for example, is consistent, and this is why this type of light is used in most holographic systems.

Holography with entanglement

Optical coherence is important for any holographic process. But our new study obviates the need for consistency in holography by exploiting “something called”Very critical situationCalled “between light particles” Photons.

Conventional holography relies fundamentally on optical coherence because, first, light must intervene to form a hologram, and secondly, light must be coherent to interfere. However, the second part is not completely true as there are some types of light that can both be incompatible and cause interference. It is a case of light made up of entangled photons, emitted as a flow of particles added by a quantum source – entangled photons.

These pairs carry a unique property called quantum entanglement. When two particles are entangled, they are intrinsically linked and effectively act as a single object, even though they are separated in space. As a result, any measurement performed on an entangled particle affects the entangled system as a whole.

In our study, two photons from each pair are separated and sent in two different directions. A photon is sent towards an object, which may be, for example, a microscope slide with biological samples on it. When it hits the object, the photon will deviate slightly or slow down slightly depending on the thickness of the sample material that has passed through it. But, as a quantum object, a photon not only has a surprising property of behaving Particle, But also as one Wave.

Like this Wave-particle duality The property enables it to examine not only the thickness of the object at the exact location it hits (as a large particle would do), but to measure its thickness along its entire length simultaneously. The thickness of the sample – and hence its three-dimensional structure – becomes “inscribed” on the photon.

Because photons are entangled, the projection projected onto a photon is shared by both of them simultaneously. The interference phenomenon then occurs remotely, without the need for overlapping beams, and a hologram is obtained by detecting two cameras at the end, using different cameras and measuring correlations between them.

Showing a diagram that produces a new kind of hologram.